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A training principle that states that muscles accommodate to a specific type of stress (habituate or plateau, also called homeostasis) when the same stress is continually applied to the muscles over time, there one must constantly vary exercises, sets, reps and weight to avoid accommodation.  The body should never be allowed to accommodate to an exercise to the point where the exercise is ineffective and results are no longer seen. Integrating variety also improves motivation, keeps one mentally fresh, and allows muscles to continually adapt.
Muscle confusion works best for general physical preparedness programs (GPP) or for breaking out of a plateau during conventional periodization-based programs. With traditional programs that are planned around specific cycles, overloads, etc., it is possible to change a workout too frequently to experience optimal performance. In cases where the goal is hypertrophy or absolute strength, it is recommended to only use muscle confusion when the body habituates.