A closed chain exercise refers to any exercise in which the force applied is not great enough to overcome the resistance. Examples would be the push-up and squat exercises. Even though the load applied during the squat is on the body, the force generated is applied to the ground, not the bar.  Also sometimes referred to as closed kinetic chain exercise, they can otherwise be described as any exercise where the hand or foot is in a secure position, whether on the ground, a machine base, or a bar (as in the case of the pullup).
- ↑ Chek, Paul (1997, 06-16). Open vs Closed chain exercise. staff.washington.edu. Retrieved on 2008-08-09.
- ↑ Miller, Anthony C. (n.d.). A Review of Open and Closed Kinetic Chain Exercise Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction. BrianMac.co.uk. Retrieved on 2008-08-09.